Split Files on embedded Linux Systems

If you run a embedded Linux PC like raspi often some Linux Commands fail without error messages, cause the hardware performance is low tech.

Same i have seen on the split command..

to split a 50GB Photos-Archive File to 4Gb on a USB Drive i found out that:

sudo split -b 4096m -d -u Photos.tgz Photos-Archive_

fix the job..
Cause option -u disable IO-Caching over the 2.0 USB Port to the RAM of the raspi that the Data of the Output Stream is written direct to the Drive.

Amazon AWS Howtos

Here some Bookmarks if you want to try Amazon AWS Cloud Services like S3 (Cloud File Storage), EC2 (VM Instances..)

Howtos / Basics :
https://github.com/open-guides/og-aws#aws-data-transfer-costs

Remark:

  • AWS Services mostly priced by data transfers and online time! Checkout daily „Billing Monitor“ !

Amazon AWS:
https://aws.amazon.com/

Remark:

  • S3 is the Standard Cloud Storage, cheaper is S3-IA or long term Backups use „Glacier“ where you first upload files to S3 and set a „Rule“ on a „Bucket“ move files to Glacier Long Term Backup!

Amazon Admin Console:
https://aws.amazon.com/de/console/

Security:

Howto Create ENCRYPTED Containers for AWS on Linux? Klick

  • At the End.. don’t forget the Security Problems for all Cloud Services !!
  • Most of them can be scanned easy by foreign governments!! (Safe Habour / EU) cause most big Companies must offer interfaces to the data stores by law enforcement!

 

WordPress Themes SEO Rating

If you use WordPress for a Blog and you think about a Theme Change for a new Look you should now some points:

  • Check new Themes for available Updates
  • Check new Theme for User Feedback
  • Check new Theme how often its downloaded, if often used Search Engines can handle the code
  • Check the new Theme some Weeks and control active the Ranking on Search Engines (like Webmaster Tools), cause bad readable Code is ranked down or broken internal links and bookmarks can forward robots into nirvana
  • Check the new Theme on various Browsers, Opera, Chrome, Firefox, IE, Mobile Browsers and Check Mobile Browsers on „Desktop View“
  • Check the Theme on various Screen width, Menu Handling, and test Browsers with disabled Java Script for barrier free handling and disabled Webfonts
  • Check the load Time with Browsers Analytics Tools, compress Code, Reduce Image Size
  • Check for Sitemaps and RSS Feeds
  • Check the Site on HTTPS, redirect HTTP to HTTPS!!

LEDE OPENWRT WIFI USB SETUP

Test Setup

  • Futro S500 with USB Wifi Dongle Realtek RTL8192CU
  • PCI Riser Card with Realtek Gigabit
  • LEDE 17.XX Trunk Kernel 4.14
  • Download latest Version from openwrt.org select x86/64
  • extract the compressed image (*ext4*img.gz) and dump it with „dd“ to CF-Card 1GB

Sample for Clean Setup like TP-Link Router Firmware:

You need to install this packages by „opkg update && opkg install package name && reboot“:


base-files - 184-r6198-ba5f700
busybox - 1.27.2-3
dnsmasq - 2.79rc1-1
dropbear - 2017.75-5
e2fsprogs - 1.43.7-1
firewall - 2017-11-07-c4309372-2
fstools - 2018-02-11-3d239815-1
fwtool - 1
hostapd - 2017-08-24-c2d4f2eb-6
hostapd-common - 2017-08-24-c2d4f2eb-6
hostapd-utils - 2017-08-24-c2d4f2eb-6
iftop - 2017-02-06-35af3cf6-1
ip6tables - 1.6.1-2
iptables - 1.6.1-2
iw - 4.9-1
iwinfo - 2018-02-15-223e09bf-1
jshn - 2018-02-08-bb0c830b-1
jsonfilter - 2016-07-02-dea067ad-1
kernel - 4.14.20-1-eb9f2f64337015eea1a75123f71f272a
kmod-button-hotplug - 4.14.20-3
kmod-cfg80211 - 4.14.20+2017-11-01-4
kmod-e1000 - 4.14.20-1
kmod-e1000e - 4.14.20-1
kmod-hwmon-core - 4.14.20-1
kmod-i2c-algo-bit - 4.14.20-1
kmod-i2c-core - 4.14.20-1
kmod-igb - 4.14.20-1
kmod-input-core - 4.14.20-1
kmod-ip6tables - 4.14.20-1
kmod-ipt-conntrack - 4.14.20-1
kmod-ipt-core - 4.14.20-1
kmod-ipt-nat - 4.14.20-1
kmod-lib-crc-ccitt - 4.14.20-1
kmod-mac80211 - 4.14.20+2017-11-01-4
kmod-mii - 4.14.20-1
kmod-nf-conntrack - 4.14.20-1
kmod-nf-conntrack6 - 4.14.20-1
kmod-nf-ipt - 4.14.20-1
kmod-nf-ipt6 - 4.14.20-1
kmod-nf-nat - 4.14.20-1
kmod-nf-reject - 4.14.20-1
kmod-nf-reject6 - 4.14.20-1
kmod-nls-base - 4.14.20-1
kmod-ppp - 4.14.20-1
kmod-pppoe - 4.14.20-1
kmod-pppox - 4.14.20-1
kmod-pps - 4.14.20-1
kmod-ptp - 4.14.20-1
kmod-r8169 - 4.14.20-1
kmod-rtl8192c-common - 4.14.20+2017-11-01-4
kmod-rtl8192cu - 4.14.20+2017-11-01-4
kmod-rtlwifi - 4.14.20+2017-11-01-4
kmod-rtlwifi-usb - 4.14.20+2017-11-01-4
kmod-slhc - 4.14.20-1
kmod-usb-core - 4.14.20-1
kmod-usb-ehci - 4.14.20-1
kmod-usb-uhci - 4.14.20-1
kmod-usb-wdm - 4.14.20-1
kmod-usb2 - 4.14.20-1
kmod-usb2-pci - 4.14.20-1
lede-keyring - 2017-01-20-a50b7529-1
libblkid - 2.30.2-2
libblobmsg-json - 2018-02-08-bb0c830b-1
libc - 1.1.18-1
libext2fs - 1.43.7-1
libf2fs - 1.9.0-1
libgcc - 5.5.0-1
libip4tc - 1.6.1-2
libip6tc - 1.6.1-2
libiwinfo - 2018-02-15-223e09bf-1
libiwinfo-lua - 2018-02-15-223e09bf-1
libjson-c - 0.12.1-1
libjson-script - 2018-02-08-bb0c830b-1
libkmod - 20-1
liblua - 5.1.5-1
libmbedtls - 2.7.0-1
libncurses - 6.0-1
libnl-tiny - 0.1-5
libpcap - 1.8.1-1
libpthread - 1.1.18-1
librt - 1.1.18-1
libsmartcols - 2.30.2-2
libubox - 2018-02-08-bb0c830b-1
libubus - 2018-01-16-5bae22eb-1
libubus-lua - 2018-01-16-5bae22eb-1
libuci - 2018-01-01-5beb95da-1
libuci-lua - 2018-01-01-5beb95da-1
libuclient - 2017-11-02-4b87d831-1
libusb-1.0 - 1.0.21-1
libustream-mbedtls - 2016-07-02-ec80adaa-2
libuuid - 2.30.2-2
libxtables - 1.6.1-2
logd - 2018-02-14-128bc35f-1
lua - 5.1.5-1
luci - git-18.047.57952-461df8b-1
luci-app-firewall - git-18.047.57952-461df8b-1
luci-base - git-18.047.57952-461df8b-1
luci-lib-ip - git-18.047.57952-461df8b-1
luci-lib-jsonc - git-18.047.57952-461df8b-1
luci-lib-nixio - git-18.047.57952-461df8b-1
luci-mod-admin-full - git-18.047.57952-461df8b-1
luci-proto-ipv6 - git-18.047.57952-461df8b-1
luci-proto-ppp - git-18.047.57952-461df8b-1
luci-ssl - git-18.047.57952-461df8b-1
luci-theme-bootstrap - git-18.047.57952-461df8b-1
mkf2fs - 1.9.0-1
mtd - 21
netifd - 2018-02-05-1be329c6-3
odhcp6c - 2017-09-05-1f93bd4c-8
odhcpd-ipv6only - 1.3-1
opkg - 2017-12-07-3b417b9f-2
partx-utils - 2.30.2-2
pciutils - 3.5.6-1
ppp - 2.4.7-12
ppp-mod-pppoe - 2.4.7-12
procd - 2018-01-23-653629f1-2
px5g-mbedtls - 4
r8169-firmware - 2017-09-06-a61ac5cf-1
rpcd - 2017-12-07-cfe1e75c-1
rpcd-mod-rrdns - 20170710
rtl8192cu-firmware - 2017-09-06-a61ac5cf-1
terminfo - 6.0-1
ubox - 2018-02-14-128bc35f-1
ubus - 2018-01-16-5bae22eb-1
ubusd - 2018-01-16-5bae22eb-1
uci - 2018-01-01-5beb95da-1
uclient-fetch - 2017-11-02-4b87d831-1
uhttpd - 2017-11-04-a235636a-1
uhttpd-mod-ubus - 2017-11-04-a235636a-1
usbutils - 007-7
usign - 2015-07-04-ef641914-1
wireless-regdb - 2017-10-20-4343d359
wpa-supplicant - 2017-08-24-c2d4f2eb-6
zlib - 1.2.11-2

  • To Test if the System see successful the Dongle enter on console „lsusb“ and „lsmod |grep 81“
  • Login on on LAN port via Cable open Admin Website (LUCI) to https://192.168.1.1
  • If Wifi doesnt work then a package is missed like hostapd or wpa-supplicant
  • Kernel will post NO ERRORS on Log if packages are missed !!

Nextcloud Owncloud Opensource Risk’s

If you are current using Nextcloud / Owncloud or other PHP-Kits for File Handling you should know these remarks:

Based on this Article

You must know:

  • Details of Security about your current used PHP Versions (7.X)
  • Details of your used Database Version (MySQL..)
  • Details of hardened OS and Webserver Version (Apache,Firewall,fail2ban,file policys, selinux, apparmor filter)
  • See ALWAYS PHP-Kits of opensource with the trust of NON HARDENED SOFTWARE (prefer NON-PUBLIC ACCESS)
  • You can ACCESS this Software thru SSH TUNNELS with a local running non-caching PROXY (privoxy)
  • Use the SSH Tunnels on unknown Ports and Login via Key Files which must be unlocked by LONG PASSWORDS
  • Public ACCESS is ALWAYS a RISK if YOU didn’t have the KNOWLEDGE of the SOURCE CODE!

Howto read here

Ubuntu 16.04 Compiz Hang Kernel

After Ubuntu published the latest Kernel Patches for Meltdown and Spectre the Kernel 4.4.0-104/109-generic let Intel Graphics freeze or hang on Compiz with Unity.

Howto fix:

Install the latest Kernel 4.4.0-112-generic

do:
sudo apt-get install linux-image-4.4.0-112-generic
sudo apt-get install linux-image-extra-4.4.0-112-generic

reboot

then:

sudo apt-get autoremove --purge -y

This removes older kernels and save Space! Do test the PC for hanging again!!!

Meltdown Spectre VM Hosting

Thru current IT News you may have heard about the major Security Problem of x86 Technology.

If your Websites current hosted on VM at VM Providers, contact them to get current news about their bug handling of their VM Host Servers. If you get no details, then shutdown your sites temporarily, or look for a other solution which isn’t running on x86 Technology.

Otherwise you can try to switch from php-kits to static HTML Websites. On the Net there are very helpful tools to do this easy. For WordPress is a WP to HTML Plugin available. This dumps your blog to HTML static paket where you can use a raspberry Pi with ligttpd as litte Webserver instance up to the time the x86 Manufacter fixes the nasty problems. Remark Debian runs on other CPUs like Sparc64 Mips too..

Android: Upgrade Downgrade Kindle Fire Firmware Bug

If you use a Amazon Kindle Fire 2015 (45$) Generation „Ford“ or other Android Tablets,Smartphones you must know some MAJOR Informations about the Firmware Handling.

Amazon Kindle Fire 2015 Ford

  • If you were asked by the Fire OS or Android to „Upgrade“ the Firmware OS, DON’T PUSH YES it without READING DETAILS! I prefer ALWAYS NO FIRST!
  • Use ALWAYS a SDCARD to hold the MAJOR Data of your Tablet, cause if bricked or damaged you can’t pull off the DATA!!!
  • Android Firmware Images INCLUDE not only the OS, it includes DRIVERS, and the MAJOR BOOTLOADER!! Cause Android Devices use no real BIOS!!
  • If you Upgrade, you can RUN into BIG TROUBLE! Broken Drivers like no WIFI connect, freezing Screens on Boot, or BRICKS like the „BLACK SCREEN of DEATH“ which destory the Tablets cause you can’t reach the BOOTLOADER for RECOVERY MODE and SITELOAD the FIRMWARE again!
  • UPGRADES to bigger Version Releases like 5.1 to 5.3.X CAN’T be DOWNGRADED! Cause the DOWNGRADE don’t force overwrite correctly the BOOTLOADER, or leave the NEW BOOTLOADER untouched which can’t find the old KERNELS Names!
  • As MAJOR INFO you should know that the „adb shell tool“ is a DEVELOPER TOOL which doesn’t ASK anything to confirm, if the Firmware File is wrong or damaged! It flashes without any testing and any protection check! YOU have to KNOW what you ENTER!
  • You can’t reach anything, if the Tablet is BRICKED and you can’t reach the RESCUE MENU MODE! Cause NAND Chips need a connect from adb shell tool to USB then to EEPROM Chip!
  • To be sure prevent the Tablet from reaching the Amazon Update Servers by blocking the Domains on a Blacklist at the Home Router
  • A pulling out the Battery, does often NOT HELP on Tablet! You often don’t need to open the Case for this try!
  • If you can, buy Tablets, without Bloatware, but with SDCARD Connector, with a more basic Android called „Stock“ OS (have seen this on cheap No Name China Tablets)
  • Check the Internet Media for Hardware Infos which Hardware allow easy root access, some Manufacter allow this like Fairphones with special opened OS.
  • For Kids usage purge the Amazon Account on the Tablet, this prevent unallowed Setups
  • Android Firmware EEPROM Chips mostly glued onto the Mainboard, if the Firmware writing fails the device is a toaster.. no normal User can plug out the EEPROM Chips to flash them outside!
  • Opened Tablets can be seen here 

.. never change a running System.. if you MUST not..

Remarks:

  • If someone find a Solution to flash the NAND chips without the Recovery Mode then mail me please!
  • This Firmware Handling is the SAME on all Android or Embedded Devices like Openmips, Openwrt Routers ..